What are the components of solar lamp?
We believe that solar energy lamps are not new to us. They can often be used in daily life. The solar street lamp consists of the following parts: solar panel, solar controller, battery pack, light source, lamp pole and lamp shell. Let's introduce the components of high-power solar lamp.
1. Solar panels:
Solar panels are the core part of solar street lamps, and also the most valuable part of solar street lamps. Its function is to convert the radiant power of the sun into electric energy, or send it to the battery for storage. Among many solar cells, monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells and amorphous silicon solar cells are more common and practical. In the eastern and western regions with sufficient sunlight and good sunshine, it is better to use polysilicon solar cells, because the production process of polysilicon solar cells is relatively simple and the price is lower than that of single crystals. In the south where there are more rainy days and less sunshine, it is better to use monocrystalline silicon solar cells because the performance parameters of monocrystalline silicon solar cells are relatively stable. Amorphous silicon solar cells are better when the outdoor sunlight is insufficient, because amorphous silicon solar cells have low requirements for solar illumination conditions.
2. Solar controller
Regardless of the size of the solar lamp, a charge and discharge controller with good performance is essential. In order to prolong the service life of the battery, its charging and discharging conditions must be limited to prevent overcharging and deep charging of the battery. In places with large temperature difference, qualified controllers should also have temperature compensation function. At the same time, the solar controller should also have the street lamp control function, with light control and time control functions, and should have the automatic load switching function at night, so as to extend the working time of the street lamp in rainy days.
Because the input energy of solar photovoltaic power generation system is extremely unstable, it is generally necessary to configure a battery system to work. The selection of battery capacity should generally follow the following principles: first, on the premise of meeting the requirements of night lighting, the energy of the solar cell module in the daytime should be stored as much as possible, and at the same time, it should be able to store the electric energy that meets the requirements of night lighting in continuous rainy days. The battery capacity is too small to meet the needs of night lighting. On the one hand, the battery is always in a state of power loss, affecting the battery life and causing waste. The battery shall match the solar cell and the electrical load (street lamp). A simple method can be used to determine the relationship between them. The power of the solar cell must be more than 4 times higher than the load power before the system can work normally. The voltage of the solar cell should exceed the working voltage of the battery by 20~30% to ensure normal negative charge to the battery. The battery capacity must be more than 6 times higher than the daily load consumption.
4. Light source
The light source used for solar street lamps is an important indicator of whether solar lamps can be used normally. Generally, solar lamps use low-voltage energy-saving lamps, low-voltage sodium lamps, electrodeless lamps and light sources.
(1) Low-voltage energy-saving lamp: low power, high light efficiency, but service life of 2000 hours, low voltage lamp tube blackening, generally suitable for solar lawn lamp, garden lamp.
(2) Low-voltage sodium lamp: Low-voltage sodium lamp has high lighting efficiency (up to 200Lm/w), but inverter is required. Low-voltage sodium lamp is expensive, and the whole system is built high, and less is used.
(3) Electrodeless lamp: low power, high light efficiency. The lamp can be used under the condition of 220V (pure sine wave, frequency 50 Hz) ordinary power supply, and its service life can reach 50000 hours. The service life on solar lamps is greatly reduced to the same as that of ordinary energy-saving lamps (because solar lamps are square wave inverters, the output frequency, item and voltage of 220V solar power supply cannot be compared with ordinary power supply).
(4) LED: LED light source, long service life, up to 1000000 hours, low working voltage, no need of inverter, high light efficiency, domestic 50 Lm/w, imported 80 Lm/w. With the progress of technology, the performance of LED will be further improved. LED as the light source of solar street lamp will be a trend.
5. Lamp pole and lamp housing
The height of the lamp pole shall be determined according to the width of the road, the spacing of lamps and the illuminance standard of the road. According to a lot of solar lamp data collected by us, most of the lamp shells choose energy saving between beauty and energy saving, and the requirements for lamp appearance are not high.